Blogpost5:Connection of Technology with concepts of diverse and Inclusive Education

Blogpost5:Connection of Technology with concepts of diverse and Inclusive Education

According to (United Nations, n.d.) “everyone has the right to education”. However, some students are facing limitations that make it difficult for them to integrate well in the traditional education system. Inclusive education can be defined as “all students attend and are welcomed by their neighbourhood schools in age-appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school.” ( It is hard to educate every student especially students with special needs. However, technologies can be useful in improving inclusive technology. Technology can make it easier by providing some tools could help them to learn.

These are some of the tools:
“Reading tools: Reading tools are an example of an assistive technology reading tool is the ability of a software application to read the text aloud.
Writing tools : Writing tools offer a variety of features. One of these features is the ability of a writing program to speak as you type, either by letter, word or sentence and so give instant feed-back.”(Farrall & O’Connor, 2010,p.36)

Technology has made many students who have disability independent (Farrall & O’Connor, 2010). Now, they are able to read and write with the assistance of technology (Farrall & O’Connor, 2010). They are also, able to use the internet and communicate with others by use one or more tools of technology. Also, students with multiple disabilities could take advantages of technologies help.(Farrall & O’Connor, 2010)

digital divide:
according to Aleph Molinari in his TED talk, he said that digital divide has been defined as”the gap between individuals and communities that have access to information technologies and those that don’t”
Also, he talked a lot about it interestingly and briefly. He has critical evaluation about the idea of one laptop for a child in the way the possibility and economically. Then, he presented a better idea which could reach even more people than one laptop did. I really recommend having a watch to his talk. It is only 10 minutes long but it has good content:


To reflect on that I think it is not only the matter of accessibility, it is also the matter of awareness. talking about myself, I have accessed the technology and the internet since I was the high school. However, I was not aware enough about what can I learn or take advantage of. Until I took frameworks for understanding learning and technology enhanced learning courses. they really developed my awareness and my understanding of e-learning. also, it made me feel I want to create something and I want to continue my learning by myself after my master degree. I planned to explore more tools and create something useful then share it with the community throughout social media.


Farrall, J., & O’Connor, G. (2010). Inclusive learning technologies – supporting students of all abilities. Professional Educator, 9(1), 34–37., n.d.,

United Nations (n.d.). UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved January, 25 2007, from: University

Blogpost4:Differences and similarities between online and face-to-face in teaching and learning

Blogpost4:Differences and similarities between online and face-to-face in teaching and learning

Recently, there are many courses available for different topics and interests. Some of them are online courses while others are face-to-face courses. However, what are the differences and similarities between them? are there a huge deferent outcomes? This blog is focusing the differences and similarities between online and face-to-face in teaching and learning from relevant literature and my online experience.

According to Neuhauser (2010), there is no significance different between online and face-to-face in students’ outcomes. His study resulted in the average scores students have got in an online group and face-to-face group was 88.1% and 86.2% respectively. If this true then what techniques or strategies of the online course he meant. I knew there are many different styles of online learning. is it self-study without the need to teachers? or is it recorded class without interactive communication? or is it an online live class? So, I believe his research new to compare different techniques or strategies of online learning.

Also his study has reached the following results:
“1. There is no significant difference between the effectiveness of the learning activities as perceived by the two groups.
2. There are no significant differences between learning preferences/styles and success in the course for either group.
3. There is no significant difference between the descriptors used by the students of each group to describe the course.
4. There is no significant difference between the final grades and test scores of FTF and online students.
5. There is no significant difference between the effectiveness of the course as perceived by each group.”(Neuhauser, 2002)
reflection on Neuhauser’s results:
actually, I was surprised by this results in the way there is a little difference between online and face-to-face. but I wonder is there any rules or exceptions of his results. I think there are not enough details could help me to value the results. for example, has he covered the self-control in the online one or he just meant the course which organised and created by the teachers at the same time. I think this made me think that if they both have the same effect, I think I will prefer online courses as it is more convenient. Also, I believe it could be cheaper and scale easily.

another relevant study of the differences and similarities between online and face-to-face in teaching and learning (Scott D. Johnson, Aragon, & Shaik, 2000)
which have discussed the following points:
• The response that online students are getting is lower than face-to face-students.
• Face-to-face students have a chance to meet each other easily and discuss their work. However, online students don’t.
• Face-to-face students can get natural feedback. On the other hand, online students have a limited feedback.
• Face-to-face students have a direct contact and support. In contrast, online students have a technological contact and support.
• Face-to-face offer the students good communications and built relationships but online students not.
reflection on these points:
I agree with the authors in some points. However, It seems to me the authors are looking at the advantages of face-to-face and the disadvantages of online courses but they did not look at the opposite side. I believe there are many advantages of online course. such as, online courses are supporting disable people and so on. Moreover, these drawbacks can be mitigated by advances in technologies. For example, advance communication tools and social networks can solve the feedback and interaction issues.
My experience:
In my view, face-to-face classes and online classes are supporting each other.
Both of them have provided good outcomes to the students. However, I believe that online courses need a high level of self-motivation and time management to get the benefit of online courses.

Neuhauser, C. (2002). Learning Style and Effectiveness of Online and Face-to-Face Instruction. American Journal of Distance Education, 16(2), 99–113. doi:10.1207/S15389286AJDE1602_4
Scott D. Johnson, Aragon, S. R., & Shaik, N. (2000). Comparative Analysis of Learner Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 11(1), 29–49.

Blogpost3:Digital Culture

Blogpost3:Digital Culture

Digital culture



This blog talks about my understanding of digital culture and its impacts on learning and teaching.

My understanding of digital culture:

Before taking this class (Technology Enhanced Learning) my understanding of digital culture was all about communication, fun, business and learning throughout any kind of technology such as laptops, mobile phones and tablets.

Now, my understanding of digital culture has got wider.

To clarify what I mean I have created a little table and I have developed it as I planned during my technology enhanced learning sessions:

My understanding of digital culture Before Now
Communications Family, friends Family, friends, peers, teachers and social
Fun Video games, music and movies I can have fun while I learn. e.g. following academic people in twitter
Learning All social cognitive theory social cognitive theory and social learning (contribution)
Teaching Courses throgh courses and through social media
Businesses Shops, jobs and ads Shops, jobs ,ads teaching and learning


It is clear that social, peers, contribution, communications, engagements, participation creation and sharing are my main new and developed understanding of digital culture. My awareness of social learning and information sharing is increasing during classes. Also, it is giving me the engagements I needed to explore more about digital culture and how I can apply what I have learnt in my learning and my future job.

The impacts of digital culture on teaching and learning:

I believe there are many impacts of digital culture on teaching and learning. However. I haven’t recognized them clearly yet. Also, I believe those impacts could be addressed somehow if they appear as clear issues to me.

For now, these are the impacts that I have explored and developed throughout TEL courses:

On learning:

This generation is growing up with digital surroundings, which have shaped the students expectation to have little response time (Gaston, 2006). Also, during the class, the delivery of information by their teachers are very slow for them, which is hard for them to be passive receptors (Gaston, 2006). they need a faster delivery of information and enough time to think and response.

Personally. I believe if the learner is exposed to how to learn throughout technology by themselves , it will be a good technology impact on their learning because it will give them an opportunity to learn whatever they want with ease and fast way

On teaching:

Online courses have made a gap between teachers and students (Toledo, 2007). This gap could appear especially when the teaching styles are not fit for online learning  (Toledo, 2007). however, technology has made teaching and delivering the information much easier than before. for example, one of my sessions in Digital Literacies and my lecture @cristinacost was very sick. she sent us emails to have that session in google hangout so we did not miss that session and she delivered it from her home.

In conclusion, it is clear that how my understanding of digital culture have developed after taking this course also my beginning of exploring the impacts of digital culture on learning and teaching is not clear enough to me. I need more exploring and interactions to get a better understanding.


Gaston, J. (2006). Reaching and teaching the digital natives. Library Hi Tech News, 23(3), 12-13.‏

Toledo, C. A. (2007). Digital culture: Immigrants and tourists responding to the natives’ drumbeat. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 19(1), 84-92.‏

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Blogpost 2: Introduction to Technology enhanced learning

Blogpost 2: Introduction to Technology enhanced learning

This blog will start by my reflection about my reading then I am going to present some of my expectations and some of my concerns about the educational technology.

It has been observed that learning by technology has been given a secondary role in the education process (Anderson, T., & Dron, J., 2012). Teachers tend to use technologies as a second tool for learning. From my experience of my learning, I also have watched my teachers using the technology as a supporting tool for their teaching which is good but there was not any technology support for learning.

I believe that the history of educational technology is related to the history of distance education pedagogy. Distance learning has developed throughout three generations (Anderson & Dron, 2012). Starting by correspondence generation. Then, followed by the use of mass media including television, radio and film. Finally, the third generation introduces the use of interactive technologies. All these generations are overlapping each other. There is no clear start or end of them. Also, these technologies tend not to die when other ones appear but new once incorporate the previous ones (Anderson & Dron, 2012). I think that is true, see if we look at telephones after the appearance of mobile phones, we will find that the massive use of mobile phones did not destroy the telephones but it decreased the its use.

Some of My expectations:

From what I have read about e-learning and distance education pedagogy I expect several things such as:

  • The number of online classes using skype, google hangout, etc will increase because it is more flexible and more scalable than face to face.
  • Educational technology will develop social learning since there are many available online websites to support the communication and social interaction even outside of the classroom such as facebook, twitter Youtube and Instagram.
  • Schools will replace textbooks by advanced technologies such as tablets, which will allow them to access to more textbooks and activities. Also, it could solve heavy back bag problems.

Some of My concerns:

The first concern to me is that educators may focus on the tools of technologies more than the materials, which might decrease the value of learning. there are many tools available which could take the teachers’ attention from the focus of the materials.
My second concern is that the quality of resource may get confusing especially for non-experts of technologies learners who use untrusted sources such as Wikipedia. this could set a low standard of the quality of knowledge for the students.
My last concern in this blog, also the most important one to me, is that using these technologies may cause cyber bullying especially in school age. The National Crime Prevention Council has had a survey, which was created by Harris Interactive and concluded that 40% of teenagers are victims of cyber bullying in the United States. However, only 10% of them have asked their parents for help (United Press International (UPI), 2008). this means there is 30% of them are suffering from it.

In this blog, it seems that the technology is increasing rapidly throughout generations. however, these advancements do not destroy the previous technologies. there are some of my expectations and concerns related to technology presented above.


Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2012). Learning technology through three generations of technology enhanced distance education pedagogy. European journal of open, distance and e-learning, 15(2).‏

United Press International (2008, April 9). Survey: Cyber-bullying affects US teens. Retrieved April 11, 2008, from bullying_affects_us_teens/3823/

Blogpost1: reflection my online world experiance

Blogpost1: reflection my online world experiance

This blog is a reflection on my experience in the online world as a learner links with some relevant literature review, the reason of taking Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) module and my expectations.

My experience of the online world:
To be honest, most of my experience in the online world is limited to the social media, communications or fun. so I can say that I have learned non-academic staff such as Read more